'A footprint means pressing down and global means world, so 'global footprint' means pressing down on the world and we don't want to press too hard' (child's definition of a Global Footprint)
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Activities: lesson plans, schemes of work and projects

Social Enterprise Guide – let your students take the lead! 
Use the new step-by-step HEC Student Social Enterprise Guide to experience setting up and running a social enterprise – an ethical, sustainable business model:
The link to the PDF of HEC’s new Guide will be coming soon.

Setting up and running a social enterprise can provide students with the opportunity to develop key enterprise and personal skills, such as innovation, risk management, creative thinking, ethical considerations and instilling ‘can-do’ attitudes. Furthermore, it can inculcate what are often referred to as 21st-century skills, such as working in teams, dynamic and shared decision-making, creative and critical thinking, problem solving, coping with uncertainty, collaboration, conflict resolution, communication skills, self-awareness and responsible action, as well as developing leadership skills and community outreach. It has a lot going for it! Students become highly engaged in learning opportunities provided by this type of activity and many students who have become disaffected or disinterested at school often respond extremely well to real-life learning situations. Skills such as speaking, listening, organisational and presentation skills, as well as financial planning and management skills can be developed. Many schools involved in social enterprise initiatives find that the experience has a direct impact on over-all educational success and that students go on to use their newly acquired skills in other aspects of their studies and their lives after formal education

Research Social Enterprise and Co-operative Values
Provide the following text and links to enable your students to research alternative trading models and consider the advantages and limitations of these approaches. 

Social Enterprise principles – businesses that are changing the world for the better
A social enterprise is a type of business that trades to tackle social problems or to improve communities, people’s life chances or the environment. Social enterprises make their money from selling goods and services on the open market, but the main difference is how this money, or profit, is spent. The profits are re-invested back into the business and the local community. The term ‘social enterprise’ came about from recognition that, across the world, there were organisations using the power of business to bring about social and environmental change and to build community development. 

Social enterprise is not a legal term, rather it is an approach. The phrase is used to describe businesses that exist for a social purpose, but it is not possible to register a business legally as a social enterprise. At its core being a social enterprise is about adopting a set of principles including:  

- Having a clear social and/or environmental mission (as set out in your governing documents)

- Generating the majority of the income through trade

- Re-investing the majority of the profits to further the social mission

- Being accountable and transparent about the way the business works, especially to the school and / or community. 

A social enterprise should have a clear sense of its social mission which means it will know the difference it is trying to make, who it aims to help and how it plans to do it. It will bring in most, or all, of its income through selling goods or services and it will have clear rules about what it does with its profits, re-invested in these to further the social mission. 

The pioneers of social enterprise can be traced at least as far back as the 1840s, in Rochdale, England, where a workers co-operative was set to provide high quality affordable food in response to factory conditions that were considered to be exploitative. However, it has taken many forms around the world and employs participatory methods, mainly Participatory Rural Appraisal (PRA), with a bottom up approach that motivates social enterprise. 

Ordinary businesses talk about ‘the bottom line’ when referring to profits. The bottom line places all the emphasis on one type of profit – money. Social enterprises talk about profit in terms of multiple bottom lines, including the effect on the environment and the community. So when the business profits, so does the community. 

One of the key differences between social enterprises and other businesses is that they can be owned and run by schools, teachers and students. This is called a co-operative, an organisation which operates on the principles and practices informed by cooperative values. You can find much more information on social enterprises at www.socialenterprise.org.uk 

Co-operative Values
Co-operatives all over the world share a set of values and ethics that gives them their distinct character. Having these values at the forefront of everything they do enables co-operatives to put their values into practice in the business world. Co-operative values are commonly understood to be:

- Self-help
Encouraging all within the organisation to help each other, by working together to gain mutual benefits. Helping people to help themselves

- Self-responsibility
To take responsibility for, and answer to, our actions

- Democracy
To give our stakeholders a say in the way we run our social enterprise

- Equality
Equal rights and benefits according to their contribution

- Equity
Being fair and unbiased

- Solidarity
Supporting each other and those in other co-operatives.

Consistent with these values co-operatives believe in the ethics of openness, honesty, social responsibility and caring for others. Co-operatives are controlled by their members, who all have an equal voice on the decisions being made. The members are able to elect a board of representatives to run the business and they can be elected onto the board. More information about co-operative values, especially where they apply in schools, can be found at www.co-operativeschools.coop

Become a Fair Trade School
UK schools can consider becoming Fair Trade schools and join the over 1,500 schools who are already involved. Through this initiative your learners can find out more about Fair Trade and support and promote it in your school through tangible steps such as a Fair Trade tuck-shop or, where possible, Fair Trade school procurement. There are three stages to the award, FairAware, FairActive and FairAchiever. Each of these three stages will help your school learn about Fairtrade and get actively involved in the promotion and awareness of Fairtrade, therefore making a difference in the lives of marginalised farmers and workers. For further information see: http://schools.fairtrade.org.uk/fairtrade-schools

Case Study: Ghanaian Tomato Trade
Share this case study with your students and discuss the complexity of global markets. 

With everyone buying Italian tomato paste, processing factories in Ghana don’t need local tomatoes any more. Charles Avaala and Asugre Akasoa can’t sell their tomatoes. It’s not because their tomatoes are bad or have gone squidgy, it’s because Ghana - where they both live - has been bombarded with cheap tomato products from Italy. Ghana’s tomato farmers are blighted by world trade rules that work great for rich countries but leave poor countries out in the cold. Italian tomato farmers receive millions of pounds of financial help to process their tomatoes, meaning they can sell them cheaply. However, Ghanaian farmers aren’t provided the same help. You can’t blame Ghana’s buying public - if you had the choice of paying 50p for Italian tomato paste or £1 for the Ghanaian equivalent, which would you go for?
But with no demand for Ghanaian tomato paste there is no demand for Ghanaian tomatoes. Processing factories have closed down leading to job losses. Meanwhile, tomato farmers sell their juicy wares on the roadside for whatever people will pay. The obvious outcome for people in Ghana, who are already poor and depend on tomato sales for survival, is lack of money for food, medicine and schooling. Farmer Charles Avaala hopes the tomato industry will pick up again. ‘Selling our tomatoes is a game of chance’, he says. ‘It’s heartbreaking to stand here and watch the superb fruit go rotten.’
Source: Christian Aid www.christianaid.org.uk and search Ghanaian tomatoes.

Should we ‘buy local’?
Local purchasing is a preference to buy locally produced goods and services over those produced further away. It is very often abbreviated as a positive goal, "buy local", that parallels the phrase "think globally, act locally", commonly talked about in green political circles. Ask your learners to research the ‘buy local’ trend in small teams of 4 – 6 students. They could compile a dossier, capturing facts and opinions they find and the advantages and disadvantages of this approach. They can debate and consider who gains and who looses by taking this step, comparing and contrasting different types of trading contexts. For example, a) milk production and big supermarket power, b) implications for developing world farmers or c) energy and climate change consequences. You could culminate the scheme of work with a class debate on the question: Should we buy local? Different groups of students could take on the mantle of different stake-holders such as producers, shipping companies, consumers, supermarket representatives, small enterprises, transition town representatives and any other stake-holders identified during the research process.